Are outside dogs happy?

As our weather gets colder,  I am reminded of the myth of  “happy outdoor dogs”  that  has persisted through the years with thousands of dogs living in backyards, sometimes on chains. Dogs are pack animals, and once they are welcomed into a human family,  that group  becomes their pack. Sadly, in some homes, dogs aren’t  even allowed indoors.  We have all experienced the continuous barking of  dogs ignored and left in the back yard, spending their lives on the outside, looking in.

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